Minerals and New Energy
Many of the metals and minerals needed to make advanced batteries are found in only a few countries, some of which are in war zones and some with unenviable human rights records.
Lithium and cobalt, the main elements used in electric vehicle batteries, are found in relatively few countries and reserves will become depleted as the EV fleet grows.
Mining communities offer suffer from the intensive development of resources, particularly when working conditions are unsafe and jobs are poorly paid.
The use of workforces from outside the indigenous communities can also lead to disease and sexual exploitation.
As new battery and energy storage technologies are developed, resource pressures will be felt along the value chain.